Permian Fossils


Permian Fossils
(440 to 410 mya) of the Paleozoic

Paleozoic Paleobiology

Permian Life and Fossils

Permian Marine LifeThe Permian was the last period of the Paleozoic Era. Important evolutionary events occurred as vertebrates became increasingly prevalent in both marine and terrestrial habitats. The early Permian flora were a continuation from the Carboniferous, but the middle Permian brought a major transition with lycopod trees such as Lepidodendron and Sigillaria of the Carboniferous coal swamps being replaced by the more advanced conifers that were better adapted to the changing climatic conditions. Conifers and Permian Land Lifecycads spread to dominate the plant world until the Cretaceous with the rise of the flowering plants. The Permian is famous for the increasing dominance of tetrapods that were the first large herbivores and carnivores, including temnospondyli, lepospondyli and batrachosaur amphibians and sauropsids and synapsid (pelycosaurs and therapsids) amniotes. Dimetrodon, shown below, was a member of the pelycosaurs, or non-mammalian therapsids that had developed by the end of the Permian, and possibly possessed by some amount of endothermy, or, warm-bloodedness; this leads to the hypothesis that early Triassic mammals were descended from the Permian therapsids. The Permian concluded with the most extensive extinction event in geological history, the Permian-Triassic ot PT extinction event, where some 95% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species met extinction. The Permian began with but one trilobite order remaining, the Proetida; the last trilobite genus, Ditomopyge, perished at the end of the Permian

Apateon pedestris
Red Beds, Odernheim, Germany
Dimetrodon grandis
Class Synapsida
Order Pelycosauria
North America
Acanthodes gracilis Acanthodian Fish
Red Beds of Rockenhausen, Germany
Paramblypterus duvernoyi Paleoniscoid (First Ray Finned Fish)
Red Beds of Rockenhausen, Germany
Salichnium Amphibian Trackway
Saint Affrique, France
Glossopteris sp.
Plant Division Pteridospermatophyta
New South Wales, Australia
Glossopteris browniana
Plant Division Pteridospermatophyta
Blackwater Formation, Western Australia
Eryops megacephalus Amphibian
Western and Eastern U.S.
Paraconularia derwentensis
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Staurozoa
Tasmania, Australia
Aeduella blainvillei Fish Fossil
Lower Permian
Jeckenbach Formation, Germany